Articles  
  Download the following abstracts of articles by clicking on the icon. To find out how to obtain the full article, please contact Bruce Baker. You will need Adobe PDF to view these files. Click here to download Adobe's free PDF reader. To suggest additions to this page, please contact Bruce Baker.  
 

 

Popular Justice & Policing from Bush War to Democracy: Uganda 1984-2004.
The National Resistance Army (NRA), led by Yoweri Museveni against the Obote regime in Uganda, saw itself as a people’s army leading a people’s war. read more...
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The African Post-Confli Policing Agenda in Sierra Leone.
This paper examines policing in Sierra Leone four years after the civil war. It evaluates the achievements in the area of policing against the major policing challenges in African post-conflict societies. read more...

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  When the Bakassi Boys Came: Eastern Nigeria Confronts Vigilantism.
Against a background of failure by the Nigeria Police to protect citizens from violent robberies, the Governor of Anambra State has adopted a radical solution. read more...
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  Protection from Crime: What is on Offer for Africans. Together, the perceptions of failing state police and rising crime have created a situation today where a plethora of non-state policing groups have emerged across the continent. Their variety is bewildering. read more...   click to download file  
       
  Who do People Turn to for Policing in Sierra Leone? The increasing diversification worldwide of policing away from the state to non-state agencies has been seen as a process that is only accepted reluctantly by the citizens of developing countries. read more...   click to download file  
       
  Living with Non-state Policing in South Africa: The Issues and Dilemmas.
Though policing is widely regarded as an inherently public good, in reality non-state policing is widespread in South Africa, doing everything that the public police force does. read more...
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Policing and the Rule of Law in Mozambique.
Policing concerns a central issue of democracy, namely the rule of law. It is the rule of law that determines the degree to which political and human rights are enjoyed equally.
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  Multi-choice Policing in Uganda.
Though increasing diversification of policing away from the state to non-state formal and informal agencies is a widespread pattern, it does not capture the nuances of Uganda’s situation. read more...
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  Multi-choice Policing in Africa: Is the Continent Following the South African Pattern?
The article provides an overview of private and community policing in Africa and compares this with the experience of South Africa. It does so within the paradigm of multi-choice policing, since in any situation there are often a surprising number of policing agencies offering localised protection of different levels of legality, effectiveness, availability, methods and services. read more...
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  Beyond the State Police in Urban Uganda and Sierra Leone.
If the use of legitimate violence or the threat of it within society is such a distinguishing mark of sovereignty, then evaluating policing in African states becomes a ready method of evaluating the degree of state sovereingty. read more...
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Post-conflict Policing: Lessons from Uganda 18 years on. read more...www.jha.ac  
 

Reconstructing a Policing System out of the Ashes: Rwanda's Solution.
Civil war (1990-94) and genocide (1994) left the Rwandan government with a daunting task in re-establishing internal security. The policing model they have pursued, reflecting their regime ideology, is a hybrid one. read more...

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Multi-layered justice and security delivery in post-conflict and fragile states.
This paper examines the value of an alternative approach to SSR policy, namely a multi-layered one in post-conflict and fragile state environments. It begins by arguing that there is a state-centric bias in current SSR policy and practice. read more...

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How civil war altered policing in Sierra Leone and Uganda.
Uganda and Sierra Leone both experienced civil wars that, inter alia, seriously disrupted policing. The wars left legacies that post-conflict reconstruction of policing arrangements has had to take into account. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2004 and 2005, this paper examines how conflict altered existing policing systems or produced alternatives. read more...

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  Post-War Policing by Communities in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Rwanda.
The article demonstrates that community-based policing in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Rwanda has survived conflict, but that its variable form and function is in part the product of conflict. Conflict has shaped public attitudes to state policing; the ideology and insecurity of the resultant regime; and state capacity. read more...
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‘He must buy what he stole and then we forgive: restorative justice in Rwanda and Sierra Leone’, Acta Juridica, Dec 2007, 171-192. 
In the face of civil and criminal disputes, most Africans use informal justice. As a result most Africans use restorative justice. Whether in customary courts, justice community-based organisations (CBOs), local government structures, work committees, or informal anti-crime groups, a degree of restorative justice is followed. The paper examines, in particular, the Rwanda local government structures... read more...

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  ‘Community Policing in Freetown, Sierra Leone: foreign import or local solution?’, Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding,, 2, 1 (2007), 23-42.
Though community policing is widely promoted by donors and criticised by academics, there has been little research on its practice in Africa. This paper examines one of the main elements of community policing, namely community forums, in Freetown, Sierra Leone... read more...
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Resource Constraint and Policy in Liberia’s Post-Conflict Policing
Police Practice and Research, iFirst, (2009), 1-13.
The paper investigates to what extent the inadequacies of the Liberia police can be attributed to state resource constraint. It concludes that policing policies by the government and UNMIL have exacerbated the difficulties... read more...

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Access to Justice in a Post-conflict State: Donor-supported Multidimensional Peacekeeping in Southern Sudan
International Peacekeeping (2009), 16, 2: 171 - 185
Post-conflict governments and donors prioritize rebuilding the justice sector through state delivered rule of law and access to justice programmes. Misunderstanding the nature of the post-colonial state, such programmes make questionable assumptions... read more...

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‘Beyond the Tarmac Road: Local Forms of Policing in Sierra Leone & Rwanda’, Review of African Political Economy (2008), 35, 118: 555-570.
Civil War deeply disrupted polcing in Sierra Leone and Rwanda, leaving their state police forces inadequate in numbers, skill and resources to serve all citiznes. In this security vacuum local forms of policing play an important role. This article argues that the country-specific pattern of local forms of policing depends on three factors... read more...

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  ‘A policing partnership for post-war Africa? Lessons from Liberia and southern Sudan’, Policing and Society (2009), 1-18.
The paper examines partnerships between the police and local groups engaged in policing in two fragile African states _ southern Sudan and Liberia. There is a tendency in Africa for such partnerships to function as local policing activities assisted by the police. This is in contrast to the model more familiar in the West... read more...
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‘Grasping the Nettle of Nonstate Policing’,
Journal of International Peacekeeping,
14 (2010), 276-300 .
For citizens of post-conflict states nonstate agencies are the primary providers of protection; deterrence; investigation; resolution; and punishment in most circumstances. For this reason alone, peacekeeping missions should be evaluating what if anything should be the contribution of the nonstate sector in the future...read more...

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‘Linking State and Non-State Security and Justice’
Development Policy Review, 28, 5 (2010), 597-616
Until recently links between state and nonstate security and justice have not been given much attention, despite being an important part of safety and security provision in the South. The paper considers their conceptualisation and then proceeds to map the relational links within security networks, looking at the circumstances in which they occur; the benefits enjoyed by the partners; and the problems encountered...read more...

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‘Justice for survivors of sexual violence in Kitgum, Uganda’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 29, 3 (2011): 245-262.
Based on fieldwork in Kitgum district northern Uganda, this paper investigates the experience of justice for the large number of survivors, female and male, of sexual violence as a result of the LRA insurgency and its aftermath.
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‘Justice and Security Architecture in Africa: The Plans, The Bricks, The Purse and The Builder’, Journal of Legal Pluralism, 63 (2011): 25-48.
This article is about the dilemma presented by legal pluralism in Africa. Is its prevalence to be welcomed and its opportunities exploited or is it a handicap to justice that should be eliminated? In seeking to present an overview of what is happening in security and justice programmes in Africa and the issues that they are raising, this article begins by examining the security and justice providers in Africa.
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‘State and substate policing in Africa and the boundaries between them’, Global Crime, 13, 4, (2012): 276–292.
Following an overview of the diverse substate policing sector in Africa and the main changes taking place within it, there follows an examination of the complex and dynamic boundaries between state and substate. The boundaries are at times imagined.
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Last updated March 2013