The following bibliography of papers, reports and texts was compiled by Bruce Baker. If you would like to suggest additions, please contact Bruce Baker.
Use the alphabet below to jump directly to authors by surname.
Abel, R.L. (1995) Politics by Other Means - Law in the Struggle against Apartheid 1980 - 1944. London: Routledge.
Abdulrahman, I. & Tar, U. (2008), ‘Conflict management and peacekeeping in Africa: the role of state and nonstate agencies’, Information Society and Justice, 1, 2: 185-202
Abrahams, R. (1987), 'Sungsungu: Village Vigilante Groups in Tanzania', African Affairs, 86, 179-90.
Abrahamsen, R. (2010) Privatising Africa’s Everyday’s Security, OpenDemocracy http:www.opendemocracy.net
Abrahamsen, R.; Williams, M. 2008. ‘Public/Private, Global/Local: The Changing Contours of Africa's Security Governance’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 539-553.
Abrahamsen, R and Williams, M. (2007), ‘Securing the City: Private Security Companies and Non-State Authority in Global Governance’. International Relations, 21: 237-253.
Adamu, F. 2008, ‘Gender, hisba and the enforcement of morality in Northern Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1):: 136-52.
Ade Ajayi and Crowder, M. (1974), History of West Africa, Vol.2, London: Longman.
Adeyemi, A.A. (1994) 'Personal Reparations in Africa: Nigeria and Gambia', in Zvekic, U. (ed). Alternatives to imprisonment in comparative perspective, Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers. 53-66.
Adinkrah, K.O. (1991) 'We shall take our case to the King: legitimacy and tradition in the administration of law in Swaziland', Comparative and International Journal of Southern Africa, 24: 226-239.
Addo, P. (2002). Key Issues in Contemporary Ghanaian Policing : identifying reform priorities. Legon: ASDR.
Adu-Mireku, S. (2002), 'Fear of Crime among Residents of Three Communities in Accra, Ghana', International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 43, 2, 153-168.
Ahire, P. (1990), 'Re-Writing the Distorted History of Policing in Colonial Nigeria', International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 18, 45-60.
Ahire, P. (1991), Imperial Policing in Colonial Nigeria, 1860-1960, Milton Keynes: Open University.
Akingbade, T. (2003), Industrial Security in Nigeria : Challenges & Prospects for the 21th Century, Authorhouse.
Akinyele, R. T. (2007). The Involvement of the Oodua People's Congress in Crime Control in Southwestern Nigeria. In L. Fourchard (Ed.), Gouverner les villes d'Afrique : Etat, gouvernement local et acteurs privés. Paris: Karthala
Albert, I., Awe, T., Herault, G.and Omitoogun, W. (1995) Informal Channels For Conflict Resolution In Ibadan, Nigeria.Ibadan: Institut fracais de recherché en Afrique.
Albrecht, P. and Jackson, P. (2009), Security System Transformation in Sierra Leone, 1997-2007. DFID: London
Albrecht, P. and Malan, M. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and National "Ownership": Meeting the Challenges of Sierra Leone. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. 2006.
Alemayehu, Y. (1998) 'The Potential of Traditional Institutions in Ethiopia', in Petty & Brown (eds.) Justice for the children: challenges and practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Save the Children. p.96-98.
Alemika, E. (1993) 'Colonialism, State and Policing in Nigeria', Crime, Law and Social Change, 20, 187-219.
Alemika, E. (1988) Policing and Perceptions of Police in Nigeria, Police Studies, 11, 4: 161-176.
Alemika, E. (2003) Police Corruption and insecurity in Nigeria’ in S. Einstein et al eds. Police Corruption, Huntsville: Office of International Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University.
Alemika, E. (2005) Police oversight agencies in West Africa, available at www.policeaccountability.co.za.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2000) Police-community violence in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2003) Civilian oversight and accountability of police in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2004) The poor and informal policing in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2007) Criminal victimization, safety and policing in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E., Igbo, E, and Nnorom, C. (2006) Criminal Victimization, Safety and Policing in Nigeria 2005. Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. O., (2007) Police reform in Africa: Issues and challenges. IDASA, Police reform in post-conflict African countries conference. Pretoria, South Africa 12-15 March 2007. Cape Town: Institute of Criminology.
Allott and Woodman (eds.) (1985) People's Law and State Law. Foris Publications. USA. 1985.
Allott, A.N. (1965) "The Future of African Law" in African Law: Adaptation and Development. Kuper, H and Kuper, (eds.).
Allott, A.N. (1968) "An Introduction to Legal Systems" in "African Law" Derret, D (eds.).
Allott, A.N. (1968). 'African Law', in Derrett, J.D. An Introduction to Legal Systems, Swet & Maxwell, p.131 -156.
Allott, N.M. (1980) The Limits of Law. Butterworths.
Allott, A.N.(1997). 'The People as Law Makers: Custom, Practice and Public Opinion as Sources of Law in African and England, in Journal of African Law. 21(1): 1-23.
Altbeker, A. (2001), 'Who are We Burying? The Death of a Soweto Gangster', in Steinberg, J. ed., Crime Wave: The South African Underworld and Its Foes, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Altbeker, A. (1998), Solving Crime: The State of the SAPS Detective Service, Institute of Strategic Studies (ISS), monograph 31.
Alvazzi del Frate, Anna (1998), Victims
of Crime in the Developing World Publication 57, Rome: United Nations
Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
Amnesty International, (2002a) Policing to Protect Human Rights: A Survey of Police Practice in Countries of the Southern African Development Community, 1997-2002, Amnesty International Publications, London.
Amnesty International (2002b), Southern Africa: Policing to Protect Human Rights: A Survey of Police Practices in Countries of the Southern African Development Community, 1997-2002, available at web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAFR030042002
Amnesty International (2007) Above the Law: police accountability in Angola, AI Index: AFR 12/005/2007
Anderson, D and Killingray, D. (1991) Policing the Empire, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Anderson, D and Killingray, D. (1991) Policing and decolonisation, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Anikulapo, J. 'Nigerias Bürger schützen sich selbst', taz 6216 (11.8.2000): 10.
Aning, E. (2006) ‘An Overview of the Ghana Police Servie’, Journal Of Security Sector Management, 4, 2.
Aning, E. (2002) ‘An Overview of the Ghana Police Service’. In Karikari, K. (ed.) The Face and Phases of the Ghana Police Service. Accra: GertMersh Publishing.
Anyanwu, Geoffrey (2007) “Tyranny of vigilance group: They brutalise residents over illegal levies”, Daily Sun (February 28, 2007), available at
Appiahene-Gyamfi, J. (2003) 'Urban Crime Trends and Patterns in Ghana: The Case of Accra', Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 1, 13-23.
Aremu, A., Pakes, F., Johnston, L. 2009. ‘The effect of locus of control in the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian police’. Policing, 32, 1: 144-56.
Assistance Committee (DAC), (2005) Security System Reform and Governance. Paris: OECD: 71–90.
Astrow, A. (1983), Zimbabwe: A Revolution that Lost its Way?, London: Zed.
Avant, D. (2007), ‘NGOs, Corporations and Security Transformation in Africa’. International Relations, 21: 143-161
Baker, B. (2002b), Taking the Law into Their Own Hands, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Baker, B. (2002c), 'When the Bakassi Boys Came: Eastern Nigeria Confronts Vigilantism', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 20, 2, 1-22.
Baker, B. (2003), 'Policing and the Rule of Law in Mozambique', Policing and Society, 13, 2, 139-158.
Baker, B. (2004a), 'Protection from Crime: What is on Offer for Africans?', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 22, 2, 165-188.
Baker, B. (2004b), 'Post-conflict Policing: Lessons from Uganda 18 years on', Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, available at www.jha.ac posted July.
Baker, B. (2004c) 'Multi-choice Policing in Africa: is the Continent Following the South African Pattern?', Society in Transition, 35, 2, 204-223.
Baker, B. (2004d), 'Popular Justice and Policing from Bush war to Democracy: Uganda 1981-2004', International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 32, 333-348.
Baker, B. (2005), 'Multi-choice Policing in Uganda', Policing and Society, 15, 1, 19-41.
Baker, B. (2005b), 'Who do People Turn to for Policing in Sierra Leone?', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 23, 3, 371-390.
Baker, B. (2005c), 'The Limits of Sovereignty: Policing in Urban Uganda and Sierra Leone', Contemporary Africa Review, 1, 48-52.
Baker, B. (2006a), 'Beyond the State Police in Urban Uganda and Sierra Leone', Afrikaspectrum, 41, 1, 55-76.
Baker, B. (2006b), 'The African post-conflict policing agenda in Sierra Leone', Conflict, Security & Development, 6, 1 (2006), 25-50.
Baker, B. 2008, ‘Beyond the Tarmac Road: Local Forms of Policing in Sierra Leone & Rwanda’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 555-570
Banal, L. and V. Scherrer. 2008. ONUB and the Importance of Local Ownership: The Case of Burundi. In Security Sector Reform and UN Integrated Missions: Experience from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, and Kosovo eds. H. Hänggi and V. Scherrer. Geneva: LIT / DCAF.
Banks, Philip A.Z. III, and Peter Serveraid, 2005, ‘Liberia Final Report’, Prepared for the role of informal justice systems in fostering the rule of law in post conflict societies, a project of the United States Institute of Peace and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, February 28, 2005.
Banseka, C. (2005), ‘The Anti-Gang Civil Militias [i.e. local plicing movement – BB] in
Baranyi, S. and Salahub, J.B., (2011). Police reform and democratic development in lower-profile fragile states. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 321: 48-63.
Barya, J. and Oloka Onyango, J. (1994), Popular Justice and Resistance Committee Courts in Uganda, Kampala: New Visions Publishing.
Bassett, T. (2003), 'Dangerous Pursuits: Hunter Associations (donzo ton) and National Politics in Côte d'Ivoire', Africa, 73, 1, 1-30.
Bateley R. and Mcloughlin, C. (2100), ‘Engagement with nonstate service providers in fragile states: reconciling statebuilding and service delivery’, Development Policy Review, 28, 2: 131-154.
Becker, H. (1998) 'Gender Aspects of Traditional Authorities and Customary Courts in Northern Namibia: This new thing that came with independence' in D'Engelebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 5-16 November1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, pp 1257-288.
Becker, H. (1998) 'Premarital Female Sexuality and Customary Law in Northern Namibia' in, University Namibia, Human Rights and Democracy in Southern Africa. Papers presented at the conference Cultivating Co-operation among Human Rights Institutions in the UNITWIN Network in Southern Africa, New Namibia, Books, Windhoek. 215-245.
Beek, J. 2010. ‘Étiqueter les “déviants”: le travail des policiers au Nord Ghana’, Déviance et Société 34, 2: 279-290.
Bekker and Coertze (1982) Seymour's Customary Law in Southern Africa. 4th edition. Juta & Co.
Bekker, J. (1989), Customary Law in Southern Africa, Cape Town: Juta.
Bekoe, D., 2012. Elusive gains: Policing and security sector reform in Liberia. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Benit-Gbafou, C. 2008, ‘Community Policing and Disputed Norms for Local Social Control in Post-Apartheid Johannesburg, Journal of Southern African Studies, 34, 1: 93-108.
Bennett, T W. (1985). The Application of African Customary Law in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Juta.
Bennett, T.W. (1991). "The Compatibility of African Customary Law" in Acta Juridica, pp.18-36.
Bennett, T.W.(1991) "The Constitutional base of traditional rulers in South Africa in D"ENGELBRONNER-KOLFF, HINZ & SIDANO (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek.
Bennett, TW (1991) A Sourcebook of African Customary Law for Southern Africa. Juta & Co.
Bennett, T.W. (1995). Human Rights and African Customary Law, Juta & Co. Ltd.
Bennett, T.W. (1996). Customary Law and the Constitution: A Background and Discussion Paper. Law Reform and Development Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
Berg, J. (2003) Research on Police Accountability and Oversight Mechanisms in South Africa 1998-2003, Institute of Criminology, UCT, Cape Town.
Berg, J. & Schärf, W. (2004) "Crime Statistics in South Africa 1994-2003", SACJ, Vol. 17 No. 1.
Berg, J. (2005), Audit of police oversight
in the East African Region
Berg, J. (2007), Plural Policing in Cape Town: Recent Trends and Challenges to Oversight. Funded by the Open Society for South Africa. Cape Town: Centre of Criminology, University of Cape Town.
Berg, J. (2007), The Accountability of the South African Private Security Industry OSF-SA Monograph 2. Open Society Foundation for South Africa. Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., ‘Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., (2007), ‘Private Security Companies in Kenya and Dilemmas for Security’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 25, 3, 391-416.
Biddle, K, Clegg, L, Whetton, J, (1998), Evaluation of ODA/DFID Support to the Police in Developing Countries - Synthesis Study, Centre for Development Studies, Swansea.
Bierwagen, R.M. and Peter, C.M. (1989) 'Administration of Justice in Tanzania and Zanzibar: A Comparison of Two Judicial Systems in One Country', International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol 38,pp395-411.
Bierschenk, T. 2008. ‘The everyday functioning of an African public service. Informalization, privatization and corruption in Benin’s legal system’, Journal of Legal Pluralism 57: 101–139.
Bilkis Omar, 2007, SAPS' Costly Restructuring: A Review of Public Order Policing Capacity, ISS Monograph 138.
Bisimba, K. (2002), ‘Perspectives on Tanzania’s Non-Formal Systems of Justice’ Vol.8, No.1, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, 8, 1.
Blaney, J and Jacques Paul Klein, and Sean McFate, (2010). ‘Wider Lessons for Wider Lessons for Peacebuilding: Security Sector Reform in Liberia,’ Policy Analysis Brief (The Stanley Foundation, June 2010). http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pab/LiberiaPAB610.pdf.
Blume, T. (2008), Implementing the Rule of Law in Integrated Missions: Security and Justice in the UN Mission in Liberia, Journal of Security Sector Management, 6, 3.
Boggero, M. 2008. Local Dynamics of Security in Africa: The Central African Republic and Private security. African Security Review 17(2): 15-27.
Boko, D (2002) "Botswana", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Booth, A.R. (1992) 'European Courts Protect Women and Witches: Colonial Law Courts as Redistributors of Power in Swaziland 1923-1950, Journal of Southern African Studies. 18(2): 253-275.
Boskati, E. (1997) "The Future of Popular Justice: A Qualitative Approach to the Problems and/or Challenges Faced by Organs of Popular Justice in the Western Cape Substructures". Unpublished Dissertation. University of Cape Town.
Bouman, M. (1984). Crime and Punishment
in Botswana, unpublished MA Thesis, Law
Bouman, M. (1987), 'A Note on Chiefly and National Policing in Botswana', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 25&26, 275-300.
Brogden, M and Shearing, C. (1993) "Policing for a New South Africa". Routledge. London.
Brogden, M. (2004), 'Commentary: Community Policing: A Panacea from the West', African Affairs, 103, 413, 635-49.
Brogden, M. and Shearing, C. (1993), Policing for a New South Africa, London: Routledge.
Brodgen, M., (1987). The emergence of the police – The colonial dimension. Brit. J. Criminol. 27 (1): 4-14.
Brooke, N.J. (1954) 'The Changing Character of Customary Courts, Journal of African Administration, 6:67.
Brooks, D. (2000), 'Write a Cheque, End a War: Using Private Military Companies to End African Conflicts', Conflict Trends, available at http://www.foxnews.com/world/062300/un_broder.sml
Bruce, D. and Neild, R. (2003), The Police that we Want: A Handbook for the Oversight of Police in South Africa, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Bruce, D., Savage, K. and J. De Waal (2000) 'A Duty to Answer Questions? The Police, the Independent Complaints Directorate and the Right to Remain Silent' SAJHR, Vol. 16, Part 1.
Bruce, D. and Komane, J. (1999), Taxis, Cops and Vigilantes: Police Attitudes Towards Street Justice, Crime and Conflict, 17, 39-44.
Bruce, D. (2002) "South Africa", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Bruce, D. (2003a) "Killing and the Constitution - Arrest and the Use of Lethal Force", South African Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 19 No. 3: http://www.csvr.org.za/papers/papbruc8.htm.
Bruce, D. (2003b) "Gripes or Grievances? What the Independent Complaints Directorate Statistics Tell Us (Or Not)", SA Crime Quarterly, 4, June: http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/CrimeQ/No.4/5ICD.html .
Bukurura, S. (1994), 'The Maintenance of Order in Rural Tanzania: Tthe Case of Sungsungu', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 34, 1-29.
Burman, S. and Scharf, W. (1990), 'Creating People's Justice: Street Committees and People's Courts in a South African City', Law and Society Review, 24, 3, 693-744.
Buur, L. 2005, ‘Sovereignty and Democratic Exclusion in the New South Africa’, Review of African Political Economy, 104, 5: 253-268.
Buur, L. (2006), ‘Reordering society: Vigilantism and sovereign expressions in Port Elizabeth’s townships’, Development and Change, 37, 4: 735-757.
Buur, L. and Stepputat, F. (2007) The Security-Development Nexus: Expressions of Sovereignty and Sensitization in Southern Africa, Stockholm: Nordic Africa Institute.
Bush, R.A. (1979) 'A Pluralistic Understanding of Access to Justice: Developments in Systems of Justice in African Nations', in Cappelletti and Garth (eds), 1979. Access to Justice (Volume III): Emerging Issues and Perspectives, The Florence Access to Justice Project, Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 261-310.
Buur, L. and Jensen, S. Vigilantism and the Policing of Everyday Life in South Africa. African Studies 63, no. 2 (2004): 139-152.
Buur, L. (2003a), 'Vigilantism and the Policing of Everyday Life in South Africa', paper presented for ROAPE conference: Africa: Partnership as Imperialism, September 5-7 2003, Birmingham University.
Buur, L. 2008, ‘Democracy & its Discontents: Vigilantism, Sovereignty & Human Rights in South Africa’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 571-584.
Caparini, M. and Marenin, O. eds., Managing International and Inter-agency Cooperation at the Border, Nomos: Baden Baden, Germany, forthcoming, 2006
Carlston, K. (1968), Social Theory and African Tribal Organization, Urbana: University of Chicago Press.
Carstens, P. (2001), In the Company of Diamonds: De Beers, Kleinzee, and the Control of a Town, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.
Casey, C. 2007, ‘Policing through Violence: Fear, Vigilantism and the Politics of Islam in Northern Nigeria’, in Pratten, D. and Sen, A. eds., Global Vigilantes, London: Hurst.
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, ‘Rule of Law through imperfect bodies? The informal justice systems of Burundi and Somalia’, no date.
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005, ‘Stateless Justice in Somalia: Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives’.
Chanda, K. (2002) "Zambia", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Chanda, A.W. (2004) Lecture Series: Human Rights for Law Enforcement Officers, the Zambia Legal Information Institute: http://www.zamlii.ac.zm/media/news/viewnews.cgi?category=2&id=1069084655 .
Chanock, M. (1978 ) "Neotraditionalism and Customary Law in Malawi', African Law Studies,16: 80-91.
Chanock, M. (1985). Law, Custom and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Malawi and Zambia. Cambridge University Press.
Channock, M. (1991) ''Law, State and Culture: Thinking about 'Customary Law' after Apartheid', Acta Juridica, 53-70.
Chazan, N. (1988), 'Ghana: Problems of Governance and the Emergence of Civil Society', in L. Diamond, J. Lintz, and S. Lipset (1988), eds., Democracy in Developing Countries: Africa, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Chiba, M.(1986) Asian indigenous Law, KPI Publishers.
Chiba, M. (1993 ) "Legal Pluralism in Sri Lankan Society: Towards a General Theory of Non-Western Law', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 33: 197-212.
Chimango, L.J. (1977) 'Tradition and the Traditional Courts of Malawi', Comparative and International Law in Southern Africa, 10:39-66.
Chingono, M. (1996), The State, Violence and Development: The Political Economy of War in Mozambique, 1975-92, Aldershot: Avebury.
Chukwuma, I. (2001), 'Police Transformation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects', paper presented at 'Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies', Conference held August 30 - September 1 2000, South Africa, available at www.kas.de/proj/home.
Clairmont, D. (1996) Alternative Justice Issues For Aboriginal Justice. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. No. 36. Pp 125 - 157.
Clapham, C. (1999), 'African Security Systems: Privatisation and the Scope for Mercenary Activity' in Greg Mills and John Stremlau, eds., The Privatisation of security in Africa, Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs, 23-45.
Clayton, A. (1989), 'Law Enforcement and Colonial Police Forces', in A. Clayton and D. Killingray, Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 67-78.
Clayton, A. and Killingray, D. (1989), Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa, Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
Coalition on Violence Against Women (2002), In Pursuit of Justice: A Research Report on Service Providers' Response to Cases of Violence Against Women in Nairobi Province, COVAW- Kenya.
Cohen, S. (1986), 'Bandits, Rebels, or Criminals: African History and Western Criminology', Africa, 54, 468-483.
Cole, Abdun Tejan, and Mohamed Gibril Sesay, 2005, ‘Justice Systems and the Rule of Law in Post Conflict Sierra Leone’.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative & Kenya Human Rights Commission, (2006), The Police, The People, The Politics: Police Accountability in Kenya.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI). (2006). Reports on Policing in East Africa. http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/nl/newsletter_summer_2006/article8.htm
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. (2006). The Police, The People, The Politics : police accountability in Kenya. www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/police/kenya_country_report_2006.pdf
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2006) The police, the people, the politics: police accountability in Uganda, New Delhi: CHRI.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2007) The police, the people, the politics: police accountability in Ghana, New Delhi: CHRI.
Conciliation Resources, ‘A path to peace: Indigenous conflict transformation and peace building in southern Sierra Leone’, www.c-r.org/resources/occasional-papers/path-to-peace.php.
Cooney, M. (1994) 'The Informal Social Control of Homicide', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 34:31-59.
Comaroff, J. & J. Comaroff. 2008. ‘Popular Justice in the New South Africa: policing the boundaries of freedom’, in T. R. Tyler, ed.Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: a comparative perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 215–237.
Cotran, E & Rubin, N.N. (1970). Readings in African Law. Frank Cass & Co.
Crais, C. (1998) Of Men, Magic, and the Law. Popular Justice and the Political Imagination in South Africa, South African and Contemporary History seminar, University of the Western Cape, no 84. Bellville, Institute for Historical Research, University of the Western Cape.
Cutshall, C.R. (1991). Justice for the People: Community Courts and Legal Transformation in Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe Publications.
Dagnino, Francesca (1998) "Mozambique: the Administration of Justice at the Local Level" in Österreichische aubenpolitische Dokumentation, Special Issue, Building Justice: A Conference on Establishing the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Situations, Vienna, 26-27 June 1998.
DANIDA (1998), Baseline Survey on the Local Council Courts Systems in Uganda, Final Report, Danida.
Davey, B. (1983), Lawless and Immoral: Policing a Country Town 1838-57, Leicester: Leicester University Press.
Davidheisser, M. and Hultin, N., (2012). Policing the Post-colony: Legal pluralism, security, and social control in The Gambia. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davis, R., Henderson, N. and Merrick, C. (2003), ‘Community Policing: Variations on the Western Model in the Developing World’, Police Practice and Research, 4, 3, 285-300.
Das, D. and Marenin, O. , eds. (2000), Challenges of Policing Democracies, Newark, NJ: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
Davis, R., Henderson, N. and Merrick, C. (2003), 'Community Policing: Variations on the Western Model in the Developing World', Police Practice and Research, 4, 3, 285-300.
Deepa, N. with Patel, R., Schafft, K., Rademacher, A. and Koch-Schulte, S. (2000), Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us?, New York: Published for the World Bank, Oxford University Press.
Deflem, M. (1994), 'Law Enforcement in British Colonial Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Imperial Policing in Nyasaland, the Gold Coast, and Kenya', Police Studies, 17, 1, 45-68.
Deng, Francis. M. 2005, ‘Customary Law in the Cross-Fire of Sudan’s War of Identities’, A study for U.S. Institute of Peace.
D'Engelbronner-Kolff, F.M.(1998) 'The People as Law- makers: the Juridical Foundation of the Legislative Power of Namibian Traditional Communities', in
D'Engelbronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds) Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop , Traditional Authority in the 1990s - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15 - 16 Nov 1995, CASS, University of Namibia , New Namibia Books , Windhoek. Pp. 62 -82.
D'Engelbronner-Kolff, F. M. (1998) "Justice in a Legally Pluralistic Society: A Court Tale from Sambuyu", in University of Namibia, Traditional Authority in the 1990s - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa pp. 195-214.
D'Engelbronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds) (1998) Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authority in the 1990s - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15 - 16 Nov 1995, CASS, University of Namibia , New Namibia Books.
Depew, R.C. (1996) 'Popular Justice and Aboriginal Communities: Some Preliminary Considerations', Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 36:21 - 67.
Derrett, J.D. (1998). An Introduction to Legal Systems, Sweet & Maxwell.
Dersso, SA 2010, ‘The African Union’s Mandating Authority and Processes for Deploying an ASF Mission’. African Security Review, vol. 19, no. 1, :pages73–86.
De Villiers, F. (1995). "Democratic aspects of traditional conflict management", in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November, 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek pp.102-118.
Dexter, Tracy, and Philippe Ntahombaye, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005, ‘The role of informal justice systems in fostering the rule of law in post-conflict situations: The Case of Burundi’.
DFID (UK Department for International Development). (1999). Malawi Safety, Security and Access to Justice: Research on Primary Systems in Rural Malawi, Final Report, DFID, May, 1999.
DFID (2002), Safety, Security and Accessible Justice: Putting Policy into Practice, London: DFID.
Diescho, J.(1998) "Human Rights and African Customary Law: Similarities and Contradictions", in University of Namibia Traditional Authority in the 1990s - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 1998, pp. 246-252.
DIIS 2010 ‘Justice and Security – when the State isn’t the main provider’, Policy Brief,
Dixon, B. (2007), ‘Globalising the Local: A Genealogy of Sector Policing in South Africa’, International Relations, 21: 163-182.
Dixon, B. (2000) 'Accountable Policing: A Four Dimensional Analysis' SACJ, Vol. 13, No. 1.
Dlamini C.R.M (1998). The role of chiefs in the administration of justice. LLD thesis University of Pretoria.
Dlamini,C.R.M. (1991) The Role of Customary Law in Meeting Social Needs, in Acta Juridica, pp 71 - 85.
Dugard, J. (2001), From Low Intensity War to Mafia War: Taxi violence in South Africa (1987 - 2000), Violence and Transition Series, vol.4.
Dzivenu Setri (2008) ‘The Politics of Inclusion and Exclusion of Traditional Authorities in Africa: Chiefs and Justice Administration in Botswana and Ghana’, Political Perspectives, 2, 1: 1-30
Ebo, A. (2007), ‘Non-State Actors, Peacebuilding, and Security Governance in West Africa: Beyond Commercialisation’, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development. 3, 2.
Ebo, C (1979) 'Indigenous Law and Justice: Some Major Concepts and Practices', in Verteljahresberichte 76: 139 - 150.
Ejidike,O.M. (1999) 'Human Rights in the Cultural Traditions and Social Practice of the Igbo of South-Eastern Nigeria, Journal of African Law , 43: 71 - 98.
Ekeh, P. (2002), A Review of HRW's and Cleen's Report 'The Bakassi Boys: The Legitimization Of Murder And Torture' On State Sponsored Vigilante Groups In Nigeria, available at www.waado.org/NigerDelta/Documents/ConstitutionalMatters/ PoliceVigilante/ReviewBakassiBoys-Ekeh
Elechi, Oko O. (2006) Doing Justice Without the State: The Afikpo (Ehugbo) Nigeria Model. New York & London: Routledge.
Elias, T.O., Nwabara, S.N. & Akpamgbo, C. (1975). African Indigenous Laws. Nigerian Government Printer.
Elias, T.O.(1956) The Nature African Customary Law, Manchester University.
Elias,T.O. (1968) 'Traditional Forms of Public Participation in Social Defence', International Review of Criminal Policy , 27:18 -24.
Epstein, A. (1951) 'Some Aspects of the Conflict of Law and Urban Courts in Northern Rhodesia', Rhodes - Livingstone Journal, 12: 28 -40.
Eriksson Baaz, M. and Utas, M., (2012). Beyond “Gender and Stir: Reflections on gender and SSR in the aftermath of African conflicts. Sweden: Nordic Africa Institute.
Eriksson Baaz, M. and Stern, M., (2010). The complexity of violence: A critical analysis of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Sweden: Sida.
Ero, C. (2000), 'Vigilantes, Civil Defence Forces and Militia Groups: the Other Side of the Privatisation of Security in Africa', Conflict Trends, 1, 25-9.
Etannibi E.O. Alemika and Innocent C. Chukwuma (2004), A Report on Poor Peoples' Perceptions and Priorities on Safety, Security and Informal Policing in A2J Focal States in Nigeria, Lagos: Centre for Law Enforcement Education.
Etannibi EO Alemika, (2005) Police oversight organizations in West Africa, Report commissioned by the African Policing Civilian Oversight Forum (APCOF) and funded by the Open Society Foundation (OSF).
Farah, A. and Lewis, I. (1993), Roots of Reconciliation - Local level Peace Process in Somaliland, London: ACTIONAID.
Fayemi, K. (2004). Governing Insecurity in Post-conflict States: the Case of Sierra Leone and Liberia’ in Bryden, A. and Hanggi, H. eds. Reform and Reconstruction of the Security Sector. Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces (DCAF).
Fitzgerald, A. (2004). Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone. Shrivenham: Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector reform.
Fitzpatrick, P (1992) "The Impossibility of Popular Justice", Social & Legal Studies, Vol.1, No.2, June 1992.
Fleisher, M. (2000) ‘Sungusungu: state sponsored village vigilante groups among the Kuria of Tanzania’, Africa, 70, 2: 209-228.
Foblets, M., Griffiths, A, LaPrairie, C and Woodman, G. (Eds) (1996) Law. No. 36 Special Issue. ) Popular Justice: Conflict Resolution Within Communities. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.
Forrest, J. (1998), 'State Inversion and Nonstate Politics', in L. Villalon and P Huxtable, eds., The African State at a Critical Juncture: Between Disintegration and Reconfiguration, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Fourchard, L. 2008, ‘A new name for an old practice: vigilantes in south-west Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1): 16-40.
Francis, D.J. (ed)., (2012). Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillian.
Frank, C; McClain, CV; Schärf, W; Seekings, J and Singh, A (1997) "Popular Participation in the Administration of Justice". Institute of Criminology, UCT, Rondebosch. 1997.
Franke, B 2009, Security Cooperation in Africa: a Reappraisal, FirstForumPress, London.
Franke, B & Esmenjaud, R 2008, ‘Who Owns African Ownership? The Africanisation of Security and its Limits’. South African Journal of International Affairs, vol. 15, no. 2, :pages137-158.
Franke, B. (2007), ‘Competing Regionalisms in Africa and the Continent’s Emerging Security Architecture’, African Studies Quarterly, 9, 3, Spring 2007.
Galanter, M. (1981) 'Justice in Many Rooms: Courts, Private Ordering, and Indigenous Law', Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 19:1 - 47.
Gastrow, P. (1999) 'Main Trends in the Development
of South Africa's Organised Crime', African Security Review, 8, 6, available
Gastrow, P. (1998), Organized Crime in South Africa, ISS, monograph 28.
Gbla, O. (2006). Security Sector Reform under International Tutelage in Sierra Leone, International Peacekeeping, 13, 1
Ghai, Y. (1991) 'The Role of Law in The Transition of Societies: The African Experience', Journal of African Law, 35: 8-20.
Gibson, J. and Gouws, A. (1997), 'Support for the Rule of the Law in the Emerging South African Democracy', International Social Science Journal, 152, 173-91.
Ginifer, J. (2006). The Challenge of the Security Sector Reform Process in Democratic Transitions: the Case of Sierra Leone. Democratization, 13, 5, 791-810.
de Goede, M. (2008) ‘Private and public security in post-war Democratic Republic of Congo’, in S. Gumedze (ed.) The private security sector in Africa, pp. 35-68. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Göpfert, M. 2012. ‘Security in Niamey: an anthropological perspective on policing and an act of terrorism in Niger’, Journal of Modern African Studies 50, 1: 53-74.
Gordon,R.J. (1991) 'Vernacular Law and the Future of Human Rights in Namibia', Acta Juridica, 86 - 103.
Global Witness (2001), Review of the Sierra
Leone Diamond Certification System and Proposals and Recommendations for
the Kimberley Process for a Fully Integrated Certification System (FICS)
April 25, 2001, available at
Gluckman, M. (1973), The Judicial Process Among the Barotse of Northern Rhodesia, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Gore, C. and Pratten, D. 'The politics of plunder: the rhetorics of order and disorder in Nigeria', African Affairs 102, no. 407 ( 2003): 211-240.
Government of National Unity (1998), In Service of Safety, 1998-2003, White Paper on Safety and Security, Pretoria: Government of National Unity, South Africa.
Grant, D.R., (2008). Perceived gender differences in policing: The impact of gendered perceptions of officer-situation ‘fit’. Women & Criminal Justice [e-journal] 12(1): 53-74. Available through Routledge.
Greenwell, A. 2001. Criminal Strategies of competing protagonists in the development of Crossroads 1990-9; the transition from apartheid "oilspot" to democratic civil society. Master's thesis, Institute of Criminology.
Griffiths, A. (1983) 'Legal Duality: Conflict or Concord in Botswana?', Journal of African Law, 27(2):150-161.
Griffiths,A. (1996) 'Between Paradigms: Differing Perspectives on Justice in Molpopole Botswana', Journal of Legal Pluralism 36:195-214.
Griffiths, A (1997) In the Shadow of Marriage: Gender and Justice in an African Community. University of Chicago Press.
Griggs, R. (2003) Lessons from Local Crime Prevention, Open Society Foundation for South Africa
Guichaoua, Y. 2009. How Do Ethnic Militias Perpetuate in Nigeria? A Micro-level Perspective on the Oodua People’s Congress MICROCON Research Working Paper 19, Brighton: MICROCON.
Gumedze, S. ed. (2007), Private Security in Africa, ISS Monograph 176
Gundersen, S (1992) "Popular Justice in Mozambique: Between State Law and Folk Law", Social and Legal Studies Vol. 1, No.2. 1992. :257-282.
Hansen, A.S. (2002). From Congo to Kosovo: International Police in Peace Operations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hansen, S. 2008, ‘Private Security & Local Politics in Somalia’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 585-598.
Harrington, C.B. and Merry, S.E. (1988 ). Ideological production: The making of community mediation. Law and Society Review. 22(4): 709-735.
Hayden, R.M. (1984 ) 'A Note on Caste Panchayats and Government Courts in India: Different kinds of stages for different kinds of performances', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 22:43-51.
Hayden, R.M. (1984) 'The Ideology of Popular Justice in Sri Lanka: A Socio-Legal Inquiry, by Neelan Tiruchelvam. Delhi: Vikas, 1984. Book reviewed by Hayden, American Journal of Comparative Law,.35: 849 - 857.
Harris, B. (2001a), 'A Foreign Experience: Violence, Crime and Xenophobia during South Africa's Transition', Violence and Transition Series, 5, available at www.csvr.org.za/papers/papvtp5.htm.
Harris, B. (2001b), 'As for Violent Crime that's our Daily Bread': Vigilante Violence During South Africa's Period of Transition, Violence and Transition Series, 1, Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Harvey, R. (2000), Juvenile Justice in Sierra Leone, available at www.essex.ac.uk/armedcon/story_id/000039.doc
Heald, S. (2006), 'State, Law and Vigilantism in Northern Tanzania', African Affairs, 105, 419, 265-283
Heald, S. (1998), Controlling Anger: The Anthropology of Gisu Violence, Oxford: James Currey.
Heald, S. (2003), 'Domseticating Leviathan: Sungusungu groups in Tanzania', research paper, Crisis States Programme, available at www.dfid.gov.uk.
Heald, S. (2007), ‘Controlling Crime and Corruption from Below: Sungusungu in Kenya’, International Relations, 21: 183-199.
Hellweg, J. 'Encompassing the State: Sacrifice and Security in the Hunters' Movement of Cote d'Ivoire', Africa Today 50, no. 4 (2004): 3-28.
Hendricks, C., (2012). Research on Gender and SSR in Africa: Challenges and Gaps. In Eriksson Baaz, M and Utas, M. eds., Beyond “Gender and Stir”: Reflections on gender and SSR in the aftermath of African conflicts. Sweden: Nordic Africa Institute.
Hendricks, C., (2011). Gender and Security in Africa: An Overview. Discussion paper 63. Nordic African Institute: UK.
Higazi, A. (2008) ‘Social mobilization and collective violence: vigilantes and militias in the lowlands of plateau state, central Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1): 107-35.
Hills, A. (1996) ‘Towards a critique of policing and national development in Africa’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 34, 2: 271-291.
Hills, A. (1997), 'Policing, Enforcement and Low Intensity Conflict', Policing and Society, 7, 291-308.
Hills, A. (2000), Policing in Africa: Internal Security and the Limits of Liberalization. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Hills, A. (2001), 'Police Reform In Post-Colonial States', paper prepared for the Workshop on 'Democratic Control of Policing and Security Sector Reform', Geneva, Switzerland, available at http://www.dcaf.ch , Geneva Centre For The Democratic Control Of Police Reform In Post-Colonial States.
Hills, A. (2007) ‘Police commissioners, presidents and the governance of security’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 45, 3, 2007: 403-423.
Hills, A. (2008) ‘The dialectic of police reform in Nigeria’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 46, 02: 215-234
Hinz, M (1998)"The 'traditional' of traditional government traditional versus democracy- based legitimacy", in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek. 1 998, pp. I- 1 3.
Hinz, M. and Mapaure, C. (2009) In Search of Justice and Peace. Traditional and Informal Justice Systems in Africa, Berlin: Verlag.
Hlashwayo, B. (1963) "Harmonising traditional and elected structures at the local level: experiences of four Southern Development Community Countries", in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek. pp. 131-154.
Hobsbawm, E.J & Ranger, T, (ed.) (1963) The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press.
Hochschild, A. (1998), King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, Houghton Mifflin.
Hoffman, D. (2007), ‘The Meaning of a Militia: Understanding the Civil Defence Forces of Sierra Leone’, African Affairs, 106, 425: 639-662.
Holleman, J.F. (1949) 'An Anthropological Approach to Bantu law (with Special Reference to Shona law)', Rhodes Livingstone Journal 10:51-64. ( reproduced in G. Woodman & A.C. Obilade (eds) 1995) African Law and Legal Theory. Dartmouth. Pp. 5-18.
Holleman, J.F (1973) "Trouble-Cases
and Trouble-Less Cases in the Study of
Holleman, J.F (1974). Issues in African Law, Mouton, The Hague.
Honwana Welch, G. (1990) "The Question
of Access to Courts", in Sachs &
Honwana Welch, G. (1985), 'Beyond Pluralism: The Mozambican Experience', in Sachs, A. and Honwana Welch, G., Liberating the Law: Creating Popular Justice in Mozambique, Zed Books.
Horn, A. and Olanisakin, F. (2008), ‘UK-led Secuiryt Sector Reform in Sierra Leone’. In E. Scheye, G. Peake and A.Hills, eds., Managing Insecurity: Field Experiences of Security Sector Reform. London: Taylor and Francis.
Hornberger, J. 2004. ‘”My police – your police”: the informal privatisation of the police in the inner city of Johannesburg’, African Studies 63, 2: 213–230.
Howe, H. (2000) 'African Private Security', Conflict Trends, 6, 22-4.
Human Rights Committee (2001) "Popular Justice", HRC Quarterly Review, January 2001.
Human Rights Watch/CLEEN (2002) The Bakassi Boys: The Legitimization of Murder and Torture.
Human Rights Watch (2003), Nigeria: The
O'odua People's Congress: Fighting Violence With Violence, 15, 4 (A).
Human Rights Watch (2010) Everyone’s in on the Game: Corruption and Human Rights Abuses by the Nigeria Police Force, Report number: 1-56432-671-3, available at http://www.hrw.org/node/92390
Humphries, R. (2000), 'Crime and Confidence: Voters' Perceptions of Crime', Needbank ISS Crime Index, 4, 2, 1-6.
Hund, John G.(1982) 'Legal and Sociological Approaches to Indigenous Law in Southern Africa' Social Dynamics, Vol. 8, pp. 29-40 / reproduced in G. Woodman & A.C. Obilade (eds) African Law and Legal Theory, Dartmouth pp. 131-144.
Hund, John G. (1983)"Justice in a South African Township: the sociology of Makgotla", in Comparative and International Journal of Southern Africa, Vol. 16, ,pp. 177-208.
Hutchful, E. & K. Fayemi. (2005). ‘Security system reform in Africa’, in OECD Development
Hutchinson AC (1990) "Access to Justice" Carswell.
Igbinovia, P. (1981), 'Patterns of Policing in Africa: The French and British Connection', Police Journal, 54, 2.page
Igbinovia, P. (2000), 'The Future of the Nigeria Police', Policing, 23, 4, 538-54.
Igbokwe, V.C. (1996) 'The Law and Practice of Customary Arbitration in Nigeria: Agu v. Ikewibe and applicable law issues revisited', Journal of African Law, 41(2):201-214.
Igbokwe, V.C. (1998) 'Socio-Cultural Dimensions Of Dispute Resolution: Informal Justice Processes Among The Ibo- speaking Peoples Of Eastern Nigeria And Their Implications for Community/Neighbouring Justice System in North America', African Journal of International And Comparative Law, 10: 446 - 471.
International Bar Association Human Rights Institute, (2007) Partisan policing: An obstacle to human rights and democracy in Zimbabwe.
International Council on Human Rights Policy (2003), Crime, Public Order and Human Rights.
International Crisis Group (ICG) (2004), Cote d'Ivoire: No Peace in Sight.
International Labour Office (ILO) (2003), Global Employment Trends, Geneva: ILO.
Irish, J. (1999), Policing for Profit: The Future of South Africa's Private Security Industry, ISS, monograph 39.
Isaacman, B and Isaacman, A. (1982), 'A Socialist Legal System in the Making: Mozambique Before and After Independence' in Abel, R. ed., The Politics of Informal Justice, vol 2, Academic Press.
Isima, J. (2007) ‘Regulating the Private Security Sector: An Imperative for Security Sector Governance in Africa’, Journal of Security Sector Management, 5, 1, 2007.
Isima, J. (2007), ‘The Privatisation of Violence and Security Sector Reform in Africa: Nigeria and South Africa Examined’, Journal of Peacebuilding and Development. 3, 2.
Isokun, M (1985). Administration of Justice: A study of Nigerian systems of Justice with special reference to the informal system of justice in Bendel State Nigeria. PhD Thesis Centre for Development Studies.
Isser, D., S. Lubkemann and S. N’Tow (2009), Looking for Justice: Liberian Experiences and Preceptions of Local Justice Options. Washington: USIP and the George Washington University.
Jeffries, C. (1952), The Colonial Police, London: Allen and Unwin.
Jemibewon, D. (2001), 'The Nigerian Experience', Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies, (Seminar Report), Johannesburg: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Jensen, S. (2007) ‘Security and Violence on the frontier of the State: Vigilant Citizens in Nkomazi, South Africa’, in Ahuluwalia, P., Bethlehem, L. and Ginio, R., Violence and Non-violence in Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Jensen, S. (2003), 'Through the Lens of
Crime: Land Claims and Contestations of Citizenship on the Frontier of
the South African State', available at
Johnston, M. (1978 ) 'Giriama reconciliation', African Law Studies, 16: 92-131.
Justice Initiative (2003), Sierra Leone: Access to Justice, available at www.justiceinitiative.org/activities/ncjr/atj/sierraleone_atj).
Kabwegyere, T. (1995), The Politics of State Formation and Destruction in Uganda, Kampala: Fountain Publishers.
Kakooza, J & 0kumu-Wengi, R. (1997) A Review of Literature and Basic Data on the LC Court System in Uganda, Judiciary Programme, DANIDA, May.
Kande, J. (1999), 'Ransoming the State: Elite Origins of Subaltern Terror in Sierra Leone', Review of African Political Economy, 81, 349-366.
Kane, M. et al, (2002), Sierra Leone: Report on Preliminary Review of Justice Sector: joint DFID/World Bank visit.
Kanyeihamba, G. (2002), Constitutional and Political History of Uganda: From 1894 to the Present, Kampala: Centenary Publishing House.
Karibi-Whyte, A.G. (1997 ) 'Sanctions in Nigerian Customary Criminal Law', in Bello and Ajibola (eds), Essays in Honour of Jugde Taslim Olawale Elias, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 541 - 561.
Kasozi, A. (1994), The Social Origins of Violence in Uganda, Kampala: Fountain Publishers.
Kenya Police, (2012). The Kenya Police College [Online] Available at: http://www.kenyapolice.go.ke/kenya%20police%20college.asp.
Keiser, L. Friend by day enemy by night: organized vengeance in a Kohistani community, Fort Worth, 1991.
Keulder,R, C. (1995) "Traditional leaders and rural development", in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek, pp. 289-323.
Killingray, D. (1986) 'The Maintenance of Law and Order in British Colonial Africa', African Affairs, 85, 411-437.
Killingray, D. (1991) ‘Guarding the extended frontier: policing the Gold Coast 1865-1913’, in Anderson, D. and Killingray, D. eds, Policing the Empire, Manchester: Manchester university Press.
Killingray, D. (1997), 'Securing the British Empire: Policing and Ccolonial Order, 1920-1960', in Mazower, M. ed., The Policing of Politics in the Twentieth Century, Providence and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 167-190.
Killingray, D., (2003), lecture to IFRA Nairobi, available at www.ifra-nairobi.org/english/new/ cdrom/pp/papers/killingray.pdf
Kinnes, I. (2000), From Urban Street Gangs to Criminal Empires: The Changing Face of Gangs in the Western Cape, ISS, monograph 48.
Kirk-Greene, A. (1980), 'Hereditas Damnosa: Ethnic Ranking and the Martial Races Imperative in Africa', Ethnic and Racial Studies, 3, 4, 393-413.
Kirsch, T. and Gratz, T. (2010), Domesticating Vigilantism in Africa (James Currey, Woodbridge.
Kisia, P. (2004), 'Promoting Peace, Safety And Security: The Role Of Communities And Local Governments', paper prepared for Africa Local Government Action Forum, available at www.worldbank.org/wbi/publicfinance/documents/ALGAF/KISIA.pdf
Klantschning, G. 2009. ‘The politics of law enforcement in Nigeria: lessons from the war on drugs’, Journal of Modern African Studies 47, 4: 529-549.
Klipin, J. and Harrison, K. (2003), The Future for Policing and Crime Prevention in SADC, Canadian International Crime Prevention Centre, available at http://www.crime-prevention-intl.org/publications.php?type=OTHER
Klug, H.J. (1989) 'The South African Judicial Order and The Future: A Comparative Analysis of the South African Judicial System and Judicial transitions in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Nicaragua', Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, Vol 12. 1988-89: 173-234.
Knighton, B. (2003), 'The State as Raider among the Karamojong: "Where There are No Guns they Use the Threat of Guns"', Africa, 73, 3, 427-55.
Koyana, D. S. (1998) "Administrative functions of traditional leaders", in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, IS- 1 6 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek pp 119-130.
Kuper& Kuper(1965) African Law: Adaptation and Development . Cambridge University Press .
Kwame, A. (1985), Traditional Rule in Ghana: Past and Present, Accra: Sedco.
Kyed, H.M. (2007): ‘The Politics of Policing: re-capturing “Zones of Confusion” in rural Post-war Mozambique’, in Buur, L., Jensen, S. and F. Stepputat (eds.), The Security Development Nexus. Expressions of Sovereignty and Securitization in Southern Africa, Nordic Africa Institute: Uppsala and HSRC Press: South Africa.
Kyed, H.M. and L. Buur (2006), ‘New Sites of Citizenship: Recognition of Traditional Authority and Group-based Citizenship in Mozambique’, Journal of Southern African Studies, 32, 3.
Kynoch, G. and Ulicki, T. (2000), 'It is Like the Time of Lifaquane: The Impact of Stock Theft and Violence in Southern Lesotho', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 18, 179-206.
Ladley, Andrew (1982) "Changing the
Courts in Zimbabwe: The Customary
Landman, K. (2003), 'Alley-gating and Neighbourhood
Gating: Are They Two Sides
Lal, A. and Francisco, L. (2006) ‘The Difficulties of Donor Coordination: Police and Judicial Reform in Mozambique’, Civil Wars, 8, 2, 163-180
LAP (Legal Aid Project of Uganda) (1992) How to Conduct a Fair Trial: Handbook for L C Courts.
LAP (Legal Aid Project of Uganda) (1996) A Final Report of the Kabarole Local Councils Legal Education Pilot Project, Final Report.
Last, M. 2008, ‘The search for security in Muslim northern Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1): 41-63.
Lawi, Y.Q. (2000) Justice Administration Outside The Ordinary Courts In Mainland Tanzania: The Case of Ward Tribunals In Babati District. African Studies Quarterly. Vol. 1, Issue 2.
Lawi, Y. (2000), 'Justice Administration Outside The Ordinary Courts In Mainland Tanzania: The Case of Ward Tribunals In Babati District', African Studies Quarterly, 1, 2.
Leander, A. and van Munster, R. (2007), ‘Private Security Contractors in the Debate about Darfur: Reflecting and Reinforcing Neo-Liberal Governmentality’. International Relations, 21: 201-216.
Leonardi, C., Moro, L., Santschi, M. and Isser, D. (2010) Local Justice in Southern Sudan, New York: USIP.
le Roux, L. and Kidane, Y. (2007) ‘Challenges to Security Sector Reform in the Horn of Africa’, ISS Monograph No 135.
Liebenberg, I., Minnaar, A and C. Schutte (2000) 'Civil Control Over Security Institutions in South Africa: Suggestions for the Future and Notes on Replicating the Experience in Africa' African Journal on Conflict Resolution, 1(1): 77-101.
Lokuji A., Abatneh A. and Wani, C. (2010) Police Reform in Southern Sudan, Ottawa: North-South Institute.
Louw, A. and Shaw, M. (1997), Stolen Opportunities: The Impact of Crime on South Africa's Poor, ISS, monograph 14.
Louw, A., Shaw, M., Camerer, L. and Robertshaw, R. (1998), Crime in Johannesburg: Results of a City Victim Study, ISS, monograph 18.
Lubkemann and Garvey, 2005, ‘Rule of Law in Mozambique’, USIP.
Luling, V. (1997), 'Come Back Somalia? Questioning a Collapsed State', Third World Quarterly, 18, 2, 287-302.
Lumina, Cephas. 2006. Police accountability and policing oversight mechanisms in the Southern African Development Community. African Security Review 15(1).
Lund, C. (2001), 'Precarious Democratization and Local Dynamics in Niger', Development and Change, 32, 5, 845-869.
MacGinty, J, M., (2003). A force for good? Poilce reform in postwar Sierra Leone. In Darby, J. and MacGinty, R., eds., Contemporary peacemaking: Conflict, violence and peace processes. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Maingi, J. and Omeje, K., (2012). Policing refugees in fragile states: The case of Kenya. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Maloba, W. (1993), Mau Mau and Kenya, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.
Malan, M., (2008). Security Sector Reform in Liberia: Mixed results from humble beginnings [Online] Avialble at: http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub855.pdf
Malan, M. (2000) "Peacebuilding in Southern Africa: Police Reform in Mozambique and South Africa", in T.T. Holm and E.B. Eide (eds.), Peacebuilding and Police Reform, Frank Cass, London.
Malan, M, Rakate, P., McIntyre, A. eds., (2002), Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: UNAMSIL Hits the Home Straight, ISS, monograph, 68
Malan, M. et al. (2003). Policing Sierra Leone, in Meek, S. ed. Sierra Leone – Building the Road to recovery. Institute for Security Studies Monograph Series No.80. Pretoria: ISS.
Malan, M. (2008). Security Sector Reform in Liberia: Mixed Results from Humble Beginnings, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub855.pdf
Mangokwana, AM. (2001) 'Makgotla in rural and urban contexts' in The Other Law: Non-state Ordering in South Africa. Schärf & Nina (Eds.) Juta. Cape Town.
Marenin, O. (1985) ‘Policing Nigeria: control and autonomy in the exercise of coercion’, African Studies Review, 28, 1: 79-93.
Marenin, O. (1998) 'The Goal of Democracy in International Police Assistance Programs', Policing, 21, 1, 159-177.
Marenin, O. (2005) Restoring Policing Systems in Conflict Torn Nations: Process, Problems, Prospects, Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Occasional Paper no. 7
Marenin, O. (2005) "Reconstructing Policing Systems in Conflict-Torn Societies: Policies, Practices and Lessons Learned." International Journal of Comparative Criminology, forthcoming
Marenin, O. (2005) "Building a Global Police Studies Community," Police Quarterly, 8, 1, 99-136
Marenin, O. (2004) "Police Training for Democracy," Police Practice and Research, 5, 2, 107-123
Marenin, O. (2000) "The Role of Support for Bilateral Police Reform Processes: the Case of the USA," International Peacekeeping, 6, 4, 93-112
Marguerite, J. (1978) Giriama Reconciliation in African Studies, No. 16, pp92 -131.
Marks, M and Goldsmith, A. (2006), ‘The state, the people and democratic policing: the case of South Africa’ in Wood, J. and Dupont, B. eds., Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security (Cambridge University Press).
Marks, M., (2002). Organising the blues. African Security Review 11(2). Available from: ISS: http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/asr/11no2/Marks.html
Marks, M. (1998), 'Policing For Democracy: A Case For Paramilitary Policing in Africa?' Crime and Conflict, 11, available at www.und.ac.za/und/indic/archives/crime/issue11/moniqu2.html
Marx, G. (2001) "Police and Democracy", in M. Amir and S. Einstein (eds.), Policing, Security and Democracy: Theory and Practice, Office of International Criminal Justice, Huntsville.
Massaquoi, J. (1999), 'Building Mechanisms
for Conflict Rresolution in South-East Sierra Leone: Sulima Fishing Community
Massey, M. (2011) ‘Reconceptualizing state-buildiign in Africa: nonstate systems, decentralization and Refounding African statehood’, Small Wars Journal, Jan 15.
Mazengera, S. (2002) "Malawi", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Mbembe, A. (1992), 'Afrique des comptoirs, ou Afrique du development?', Le Monde diplomatique.
McCracken, J. (1986), 'Coercion and Control in Nyasaland: Aspects of the History of a Colonial Police Force', Journal of African History, 27, 127-148.
Meagher, K (2007) ‘Hijacking civil society: the inside story of the Bakassi Boys vigilante group of south-eastern Nigeria’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 45, 1, 2007, 89-115
Meagher, K. (2006), ‘Hijacking civil society: the inside story of the Bakassi Boys vigilante group of south eastern Nigeria’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 45, 1: 89-115.
Meek, S. (2003), Policing Sierra Leone, in Malan, M., Meek, S., Thusi, T., Ginifer, J. and Coker, P., eds., Sierra Leone: Building the Road to Recovery, ISS, monograph 80.
Mehler, A (2004) ‘Oligipolies of violence in Africa south of the Sahara’, Discussion Paper, Institute African Affairs, Hamburg.
Merry, Sally (1982) "The Social Organisation of Mediation in Nonindustrialised Societies: Implications for Informal Community Justice in America", in Abel (ed) The Politics of Informal Justice, Vol 2 pp. 17-45.
Merry, S. (1988) "Legal Pluralism", Law and Society Review 22, pages 869-96.
Merry, S (1992) "Popular Justice and the Ideology of Social Transformation", Social & Legal Studies, Vol.1, No.2, June.
Meschievitz, C. & Galanter, M. (1982) "In Search of Nyaya Panchayats: The Politics of a Moribund Institution", in Abel (ed) The Politics of lnformal Justice, Vol. 2 pp. 47-77.
MINARS (Ministry of Social Assistance and Rehabilitation of Angola) (1998) "Traditional Justice in Angola" in Petty & Brown (eds) Justicefor Children: Challenges for Policy and Practice in Sub-Saharan Aftica, SAVE THE CHILDREN, pp. 92-95.
Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., ‘Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., (2007), ‘Private Security Companies in Kenya and Dilemmas for Security’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 25, 3, 391-416.
Mirzeler, M. and Young, C. (2000), 'Pastoral Politics in the Northeast Periphery in Uganda: AK-47 as Change Agent', Journal of Modern African Studies, 38, 407-29.
Møller, B 2009, ‘The African Union as a Security Actor: African Solutions to African Problems?’. Crisis States Research Centre Working Papers Series (LSE), vol. 2, no. 57. Retrieved July 18, 2011, from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/28485/
Mondelane, L. (2000), 'The Growth, Extent
and Causes of Crime: Mocambique',
Molokomme, A. (1995) "Customary Law in Botswana: Past, Present and Future?" in Botswana in the 21 st Century by Brothers, Hennas and Nteta, Botswana Society, Gaborone.
Mqeke, R. (1995), 'Customary Law and Human Rights', The South African Law Journal, 113, 2,
Murithi, Tim 2009, ‘Aid Colonisation and the Promise of African Continental Integration’, in H Abbas & Y Niyiragira (eds), Aid to Africa: Redeemer or Coloniser, Pambazuka Press, Cape Town.364-69.
Mushemeza, E.D., 2008. Policing in post-conflict environment: Implications for police reform in Uganda. Journal of Security Sector Management. 6(3). Available from ssronline: http://www.ssronline.org/jofssm/issues/jofssm_0603_Mushemeza.pdf?CFID=1365997&CFTOKEN=95712019
Musiime, A., 2012. From repressive to community policing in Uganda. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mwaikusa, J.T. (1996) The Limits of Judicial Enterprise: Judicial Powers in the Process of Political Change in Tanzania. Journal of African Law, Vol 40. Pp 243-255.
Mwanajiti, N., Mhlanga, P., Sifuniso, M., Nachali-kambikambi, Y., Muuba, M. and Mwananyanda, M. (2002) Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Myburgh, AC (ed) (1980) Indigenous Criminal Law in Bophutatswana, JL van Shaik, Pretoria.
Myburg, AC & Prinsloo, MW (1985) Indigenous Public Law in KwaNdebele, van Shaik. Pretoria.
Myburgh, AC. (1985) Papers on Indigenous Law in Southern Africa, JL van Shaik.
Mzizi, J. (2002) "Swaziland", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Namiseb, T. (2002) "Namibia", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Nduka, O. (1977 ). 'The traditional concept of justice among the Ibo of South-Eastern Nigeria.' ODU. 15:91-103. Reproduced in G.Woodman and A.C. Obilade eds. African Law and Legal Theory. Dartmouth. Pp.19-32.
Neild, R. (2000), 'Democratic Police Reforms in War-torn Societies', Conflict Security and Development, 1, 21-43.
Newburn, T. & Hinton, M. eds. (2008) Policing Developing Democracies. London: Routledge.
Newham, G., Masuku, T. and Gomomo, L. (2002), Metropolitan Police Services in South Africa, 2002, report written for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, November.
Newham, G., Masuku, T. & Dlamini, J. (2006). Diversity and Transformation in the South African Police Service: A study of police perspectives on race, gender and the community in the Johannesburg policing area. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Ng Sui Wa, D. (2002) "Mauritius", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Ngugi, R. et al. (2004) Security Risk and Private Sector Growth in Kenya, Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis.
Nhancale, P. (2002) "Mozambique", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
NIM (Network of Independent Monitors) (1997), unpublished report on violence on the Amplats Mines.
Nina, D. (2001), 'Dirty Harry is Back: Vigilantism in South Africa - The (Re)emergence of "Good" and "Bad" Community', available at www.iss.co.za.
Nina, D. and Schwikkard, P. (1996), 'The "Soft Vengeance" of the People: Popular Justice, Community Justice and Legal Pluralism in South Africa', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 69-87.
Nina, D. and Scharf, W. (2001), 'Introduction: The Other Law?', in Scharf and Nina, The Other Law: Non-state Ordering in South Africa. Lansdowne: Juta.
Nina, D (1992) "Popular Justice in a new South Africa. From People's Courts to community courts in Alexandra". Occasional Paper 15. Centre for Applied Legal Studies.
Nina, D (1993) "Community Justice in a Volatile South Africa: Containing Community Conflict, Clermont, Natal", Social Justice Vol. 20, Nos 3-4, 1993.
Nina, D. (1995) "Community Courts in South Africa". SJRP. Institute of Criminology. UCT. 1995.
Nina, Daniel (1995) Rethinking Popular Justice - self-regulation and civil society in South Africa, Community Peace Foundation, Cape Town.
Nina, D. (2001) "Popular Justice and the 'Appropriation' of the State Monopoly on the Definition of Justice and Order: The Case of Anti-Crime Committees", The Other Law- Non-State Ordering in South Africa. Schärf & Nina (eds.) Juta. Cape Town.
Nolte, I. (2007), ‘Ethnic Vigilantes and the State: The Oodua People's Congress in South-Western Nigeria’. International Relations, 21: 217-235.
Nolte, I. 2008, ‘Without women, nothing can succeed’: Yoruba women in the Oodua people's congress (OPC), Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1): 84-106.
Nyamu-Musembi, C. (2003), Review of Experience
in Engaging with 'Non-
ODI 2012, Briefing Paper 73, Non-state security and justice in fragile states Lessons from Sierra Leone http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7640.pdf
Odoki, B.J. (1995) Reducing delay in the Administration of Justice: The Case of Uganda. Criminal Law Forum, Vol 5. pp 57- 89.
Ojwang, J.B.(1995 ). 'The meaning, content and significance of tribal law in an emergent nation: the Kenyan case. Law and Anthropology. 4:125-40. Reproduced in G. Woodman & Obilade, A.C. eds. African Law and Legal Theory. Dartmouth. 43-58.
Okereafezeke, Nonso (2002) Law and Justice in Post-British Nigeria: Conflicts and Interactions Between Native and Foreign Systems of Social Control in Igbo.Westport, Connecticut, USA: Greenwood Press.
Okereafezeke, Nonso (2003) “Traditional Social Control in an Ethnic Society: Law Enforcement in a Nigerian Community”. Police Practice & Research, Volume 4, Number 1, pp. 21-33.
Okereafezeke, Nonso (2006) “Legalism, Tradition, and Terrorism in Nigeria”. The International Journal of African Studies, Volume 5.2, Winter 2006, pp. 27-61.
Okerafoezeke, N. (2006) ‘Traditional social control in an ethnic society: law enforcement in a Nigerian community’, Police Practice and Research, 4:1: 21 – 33.Olanisakin, F. (2007), Peacekeeping in Sierra Leone: the Story of UNAMSIL, Lynne Rienner: Boulder
Olaniyi, R., ‘Hisba and the Sharia Law enforcement in metropolitan Kano’, French Institute for Research in Africa IFRA, Conflict and Violence in Nigeria, Zaria, 2009.
Olaniyi, R., ‘Community Vigilantes in Metroplitan Kano, 1985-2005’, research project, French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA), Ibadan, 2005.
Oloka-Onyango, J. (1989) Law, 'Grassroots Democracy and the National Resistance Movement in Uganda', International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 17, 465 -480.
Omar, A.M. (1996 ) 'Transformation of the Justice System in South Africa' Imbizo. 1: 10-15. Address at Legal Forum on Access to Justice. Durban 17-19 November.
Onoge, O. (1993) ‘Social conflicts and crime control in colonial Nigeria’, in Tamuno, T. et al eds., Policing Nigeria, Lagos: Malthouse Press.
Onyeozili, E. (2005) ‘Obstacles to Effective Policing in Nigeria’, African Journal of Criminology and Justice Studies.
Open Society Justice Initiative, ‘National Criminal Justice Reform, Donor Assistance to Justice Sector Reform in Africa: Living up to the new agenda?’, no date.
Open Society Initiative (2006) ‘Between Law and Society: Paralegals and the Provision of Primary Justice Services in Sierra Leone’, 2006.
Oputa, Hon. Mr Justice C.A. (1975) "Crime and the Nigerian Society", in Elias, Nwabara & Akpamgbo African Indigenous Laws, Nigerian Government Printer, Enugu.
Otlhogile, B. (1993). Criminal justice and the problems of a dual legal system in Botswana. Criminal Law Forum. 4(3) 521-533.
Pavlich, G. (1992), 'People's Courts, Postmodern Difference and Socilaist Justice in South Africa', Social Justice, 19, 3, 29-45.
Peake, G. (2006), 'Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone' in Gordon Peake, Eric Scheye and Alice Hills eds. Managing Insecurity: Field Experiences of Security Sector Reform. London: Taylor and Francis.
Pelser, E. (1999), The Challenges of Community Policing in South Africa, ISS, monograph 42 available at www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Papers/42/Paper42.html
Pelser, E., A. Louw and S. Ntuli. (2000), Poor Safety: Crime and Policing in South Africa's Rural Areas, ISS, monograph 47.
Perouse de Montclos, M. (1997), 'Does Africa Need the Police?', Le Monde Diplomatique, September.
Peters, R. (2001), The Reintroduction Of Islamic Criminal Law In Northern Nigeria. A Study Conducted On Behalf Of The European Commission, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/eidhr/pdf/islamic-criminal-law-nigeria_en.pdf
Petlane, T. & Mapetla, M. (1998) "Gender aspects of female chieftainship in Lesotho", in D'Englebronner- Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), 1998, -Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties- Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek, pp. 247 -256.
Petty, C and Brown, M . ( eds ). (1998 ). Justice for the children: Challenges and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. London: Save the Children.
Philip, K. (1989), 'The Private Sector and the Security Establishment', in J. Cock and L. Nathan, eds., War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa, Cape Town: David Philip.
Phiri, K. (2000), 'A Case of Revolutionary Change in Contemporary Malawi: The Malawi Army and the Disarming of the Malawi Young Pioneers', Journal of Peace, Conflict and Military Studies 1, 1, 41-50.
Plyler, M. (2007) ‘Keeping the Peace: Violent Justice, Crime and Vigilantism in Tanzania’, in Ahuluwalia, P., Bethlehem, L. and Ginio, R., Violence and Non-violence in Africa, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Potholm, C. (1969). ‘The multiple roles of the police as seen in the African context’, Journal of Developing Areas 3: 139–58.
Pratten, D. (2006) ‘The Politics of Vigilance in Southeastern Nigeria’. Development and Change 37 (4): 707-734.
Pratten, D. 2008, ‘“The thief eats his shame”: practice and power in Nigerian vigilantism’, Africa, 78(1): 64-83.
Prinsloo, J (1999) "Indigenous Law as an Alternative to the Criminal Justice System". South African Institute of Criminological Sciences, UNISA.
Ranger, T. (1983), 'The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa', in T. Ranger and E. Hobsbawm, eds., The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rathbone, R. (1992), 'Political Intelligence and Policing in Ghana in the Late 1940s and 1950s', in D. Anderson and D. Killingray, eds., Policing and Decolonisation: Politics, Nationalism and the Police, 1917-1965, 84-104, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Rauch J. and van der Spuy, E.. Recent experiments in police reform in post-conflict Africa: a review. IDASA. Institute for Democracy in South Africa www.idasa.org.za . 2006.
Rauch, J. (2006), Police Organisations in Post Conflict African States: The case of South Africa, IDASA, available from www.idasa.org.za
Reno, W. date Countries at the Crossroads: Country Profile of Sierra Leone, available at unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/ public/documents/nispacee/unpan016206.pdf
Report of the Panel of Experts Appointed Pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1306 in Relation to Sierra Leone, (2000).
Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002).
Richards, A.I. (1991) The political system of the Bemba tribe - North-Eastern Rhodesia. In: Roberts, R and Mannik: "Law in Colonial Africa" .
Roberts, S. (1979) 'Tradition and Change At Mochudi: Competing Jurisdictions in Botswana', African Law Studies, 17: 37 - 51.
Roche, D. (2002), 'Restorative Justice and the Regulatory State in South African Townships', British Journal of Criminology, 42, 514-33.
Roitman, J. (2004), 'Power is not Sovereign: The Pluralisation of Economic Regulatory Authority in the Chad Basin', in B. Hibou, ed., Privatising the State, London: Hurst.
Rose, L (1996). "Are Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Programs Suitable for Africa? Africa Notes, Sept. 1996.
Rose, L. (1995). Justice at the Local Level Findings and Recommendations for Future Actions, Rwanda Rapid Response Rule of Law Program, Project report, USAID, May 1995.
Ruteere, M. and Pommerolle, M. (2003), 'Democratizing
Rwengabo, S. (2010) Neither Formal nor Marketized: Privatized Security in the Slum Areas of Kampala City, Uganda, GCST New Voices Series, 12, Global Consortium on Security Transformation.
Rwezaura, B A. (1987) State Law and Customary law - Reflections on their relationship in contemporary Tanzania.
Sabelo Gumedze (2007) Private Security in Africa, Manifestation, Challenges and Regulation, ISS Monograph 139.
Sachs, Albie (1990) "The Two Dimensions of Socialist Legality: Recent Experience in Mozambique", in Sachs & Honwana Welch Liberating the Law - Creating Popular Justice in Mozambique.
Sachs, A. (1984), 'Changing the Terms of the Debate: A Visit to a Popular Tribunal in Mozambique', in Journal of African Law, 28, 1 & 2, 99- 108.
Sachs and Honawa Welch, (1990), Liberating the Law: Creating Popular Justice in Mozambique, London: Zed Books.
Salahub, J.E., 2011. African women on the thin blue line: Gender-sensitive police reform in Liberia and Southern Sudan. Canada: The North-South Institute.
Salamone, F. (1998), 'The Waziri and the Thief. Hausa Islamic Law in a Yoruba City A Case Study from Ibadan, Nigeria', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 42, 139-156.
Saltman, M. (1979) 'Indigenous law among the Kipsigis of Southwestern Kenya, in Cappelletti and Garth " Access to Justice Volume III: Emerging issues and perspectives" The Florence Access to Justice Project. Sijthoff & Noordhoff pp.311-340.
Samara, T. (2005), Youth, Crime and Urban
Renewal in the Western Cape
Samatar, A. (1994), 'Civic Disembowelment and the Collapse of the State in Somalia', in Samatar, A. ed., The Somali Challenge: From Catastrophe to Renewal. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Sammonds, N. (2000) A Need to Know: The Struggle for Democratic, Civilian Oversight of the Security Sector in Commonwealth Countries, Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit, London.
Santos, B de Souza (1984), 'From Customary Law to Popular Justice', Journal of African Law, 28, 1&2, 90-98.
Santos, B de Souza (1984) 'From Customary Law to Popular Justice', Journal of African Law, 28(1&2): 90-98.
Schabas, William & Imbleau, Martin (1997) Introduction to Rwandan Law, Les Edition Yvon Blais Inc. (Quebec).
Schapera, I. (1957), 'The Sources Of Law In Tswana Tribal Courts: Legislation And Precedent', Journal Of African Law, 1, 3, 150-162.
Scharf, Wilfried, Chikosa Banda, Ricky Rontsch, Desmond Kaunda, Rosemary Shapiro, ‘Access to justice for the poor of Malawi? An appraisal of access to justice provided to the poor of Malawi by the lower subordinate courts and the customary justice forums’, no date.
Schärf, W. (1999), Report on the Consultative Group Meeting on Access to Justice and Penal Reform in Africa Kampala, Uganda 18th to 20th March 1999, Penal Reform International, London.
Schärf, W. (2000), 'Community Justice and Community Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa. How Appropriate are the Justice Systems of Africa?', paper delivered at the International Workshop on the Rule of Law and Development: Citizen Security, Rights and Life Choices in Law and Middle Income Countries Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex 1-3 June 2000, available at www.ids.ac.uk/ids/govern/accjust/ pdfs/scharf%20paper.pdf
Schärf, W. (2001), Police Reform and
Crime Prevention in Post-Conflict Transitions. Learning from the South
African and Mozambican Experience,
Schärf, W. (2003), Non-State Justice
Systems in Southern Africa: How should
Schärf, W. and Nina, D. (2001), The Other Law: Non-state Ordering in South Africa. Lansdowne: Juta.
Schärf Wilfried & Ncgokoto, Baba, (1990) "Images of Punishment in the People's Courts of Cape Town 1985-7: from Prefigurative Justice to Popular Violence" in Political Violence and the Struggle in South Africa, by Manganyi, C and du Toit, A (eds), Macmillan, London, pp341-371.
Schärf Wilfried & Nina, Daniel, (EDS) 2001. The Other Law: non-state forms of ordering in South Africa, Juta, Wetton, South Africa.
Schärf, W (1988): "People's Justice" SASH Vol. 30. 4/1988.
Schärf, Wilfried (1997) Specialist Courts and Community Courts, Position Paper Commissioned by the Ministry of Justice, South Africa. Institute of Criminology, University of Cape Town.
Schärf, W. (2001) "Policy Options on Community Justice", The Other Law: Non-state Ordering in South Africa. Schärf & Nina (Eds.) Juta. Cape Town.
Schärf, W. (2001) Community justice
and community policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Schmidt, E. (1992) Peasants, Traders and Wives: Shona Women in the History of Zimbabwe. 1870-1939, Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann; London: James Currey; Harare: Baobab.
Schonteich, M. (1999) Unshackling the Crime Fighters: Increasing Private Sector Involvement in South Africa's Justice System, Johannesburg: South Africa Institute of Race Relations.
Schonteich, M. (2000) Justice Versus Retribution: Attitudes to Punishment in the Eastern Cape, ISS, monograph 45.
Seekings, J. (1992) 'The Revival of People's Courts', in G. Moss and I. Obery eds., South African Review 6: From 'Red Friday' to Codesa, Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 186-200.
Seekings, J. (2001) 'Social Ordering and
Control in the African Townships of
Seekings, J. (1993) Heroes of Villains? Youth Politics in the 1980s Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
Seekings, J (1989) "People's Courts and Popular Politics", South African Review Vol. 6.
Sekhonyane, M. (2000) 'Using Crime to Fight Crime: Tracking Vigilante Activity', Needbank ISS Crime Index 4, 4, 1-4.
Sekhonyane, M. (2002) Violent justice, vigilantism and the state’s response, Monograph series, ISS 45.
Seleti, Y. (2000) 'The Public in the Exorcism
of the Police in Mozambique:
Seymour, S. (1970), Bantu Law in South Africa, Cape Town: Juta.
Shamena, M.E. (1998) "The concept of 'traditional community"', in D'Englebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa.
Shaw, M. (2000), 'Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies - Conference Summary and Overview', report of the proceeding of 'Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies', Conference held August 30 - September 1 2000, South Africa, available at http://www.kas.org.za/publications/seminarreports/crimeandpolicingintransitionalsocieties/shaw.pdf
Shaw, M. (1995), 'Partners in Crime'? Crime, Political Transition and Changing Forms of Policing Control, Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies.
Shaw, M. (2000), 'Conference Summary and Overview', in Crime And Policing In Transitional Societies, proceedings of a conference, Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies conducted in conjunction with the South African Institute for International Affairs, available at www.kas.de/proj/home
Shaw, M. (2002), Crime and Policing in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Transforming under Fire, London: Hurst.
Shaw, M. and Louw, A. (1997), Stolen Opportunities: The Impact of Crime on South Africa's Poor, ISS, monograph 14.
Shear, K. (2003) “‘Taken as Boys’: The Politics of Black Police Employment and Experience in Early Twentieth-Century South Africa,” in Lisa A. Lindsay and Stephan F. Miescher, eds., Men and Masculinities in Modern Africa (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann), 109-127.
Shearing, C. & Foster, D. (2007) ‘Back to the future in South African security: From intentions to effective mechanisms’ in Parmentier, S, van der Spuy, E. and Dissell, A. eds. Acta Juridica
Shearing, C. & Berg, J. (2006) ‘Plural Policing in South Africa: an African case’, In T. Newburn & T. Jones (eds.) Plural Policing: A Comparative Perspective, Cullompton, UK: Willan.
Shearing, C. and Kempa, M. (2000) 'The Role of "Private Security" in Transitional Democracies', paper given at 'Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies', Conference held August 30 - September 1 2000, South Africa, available at www.kas.de/proj/home
Sherrington, R. 2007, ‘Mob Justice, Metaphysical Punishment and the Moralisation of Accumulation in Urban Tanzania’, Cambridge Anthropology, 27, 1, 1-24.
Shivji, I.G. (1985) Law in Independent Africa: Some Reflections on the Role of Legal Ideology. Ohio State Law Journal. 46.
Shivji,I.G. (1991) Contradictory Developments in The Teaching and Practice of Human Rights Law in Tanzania. Journal of African Law, Vol35. Pp116-127.
Shyllon, F. (1980) ‘The demise of the rule of law in Nigeria under the military’, in Shyllon F. et al, The demise of the rule of law in Nigeria under military law: two points of view, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.
Sierra Leone Police (2004), An Investigative Perception Survey on the Performance of the SLP for the First Half of the Year 2004: A Case Study of the Western Area and the Provincial Towns of Makeni, Bo and Kenema.
Sierra Leone Police (2005), the Annual Crime Report for the Year 2004.
Simons, A. (1998), 'Somalia: The Structure of Dissolution', in Villalon, L. and Huxtable, P., The African State at a Critical Juncture, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Sinclair, G. (2007) Colonial Policing and the Imperial Endgame 1945-80, Manchester University Press.
Skelton, Ann (1998) "International trends in the re-emergence of traditional systems", Petty & Brown (eds) Justice for Children: Challenges for Policy and Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa, Save The Children pp. 99-101.
Simelane, H. 2008. ‘Security for All? Politics, Economy & the Growth of Private Security in Swaziland’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 599-612.
Smith, D. 'The Bakassi Boys: Vigilantism, Violence, and Political Imagination in Nigeria'. Cultural Anthropology, 19, no. 3 (2004): 429-455
Snyder, Francis G.(1984) "Colonialism and Legal Form: The Creation of 'Customary Law' in Senegal", in Journal of Legal Pluralism, No. 19, pp. 49-90.
South African Law Commission (SALC)1997a Alternative Dispute Resolution, SALC Issue Paper 8, Project 94.
South African Law Commission (1999) " Community Dispute Resolution Structures". Discussion Paper 87, Project 94, August 1999.
South African Law Commission (SALC) (1999) The Harmonisation of Common Law and Indigenous Law: Traditional Courts and The Judicial Function of Traditional Leaders, SALC Discussion Paper 82. Project 90.
South African Law Commission (2003) Customary Law. Report on Traditional Courts and the Judicial Function of Traditional Leaders. SALC. Project 90.
Stack, L. (1997) Courting Disaster? Justice and South Africa's New Democracy, Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies.
Stapleton, S. (2011) African Police and Soldiers in Colonial Zimbabwe, 1923-80
Stapleton, T. (2011) African Police and Soldiers in Colonial Zimbabwe 1923-80, University of Rochester Press.
Stavrou, A. (2002) Crime in Nairobi: Results of a Citywide Victim Survey, Safer Cities Series #4 (Nairobi; UN Habitat); F.
Stevens, J (2000) "Traditional and Informal Justice Systems and Access to Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa". Penal Reform International.
Stevens, J. (2001), Access to Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa - The Role of Traditional and Informal Justice Systems, London: Penal Reform International.
Storch, R. (1975), 'The Policeman as Domestic Missionary', Journal of Social History, 9. 481-509.
Sutherland, A.J. (1981) Local Level Dispute Processes In Botswana: The Yeyi Moot Encapsulated. Journal of African Law. Vol.25, No.2 pp 94 -114.
Tamuno, T. (1970) The Police
in Modern Nigeria: 1861-1965, Ibadan: Ibadan
Tamuno, T. (1993) Crime and security in pre-colonial Nigeria in Tamuno, T. et al eds., Policing Nigeria, Lagos: Malthouse Press.
Tankebe, J. 2010. ‘Public confidence in the police: testing the effects of public experiences of police corruption in Ghana’, British Journal of Criminology 50, 2: 296-319.
Tankebe, J. (2008) ‘Police effectiveness and police trustworthiness in Ghana’, Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8, 2: 185-202.
Tanzanian Ministry of Labour in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics, Integrated Labour Force Survey 2000/01, conducted by the www.tanzania.go.tz/newf.html.
Taylor, R. 'Justice denied: political violence in Kwa-Zulu Natal after 1994', African Affairs 101, no. 405 (2002): 473-508.
Temngah, Joseph N. (1996) "Customary Law, Women's Rights and Traditional Courts in Cameroon", in Revue Generale de Droit, , vol. 27, pp. 349-356.
Tertsakian, C. 'State-sponsored terrorism. The Bakassi boys; the legitimization of murder and torture'. Human Rights Watch 85659 (2002).
Tertsakian, C. (2003) The O’odua People’s Congress: fighting violence with violence, New York: Human Rights Watch.
Thacker, Ronald (1998) "Traditional Justice Systems", in Petty & Brown (eds) Justice for Children: Challenges for Policy and practice in Sub-Saharan Africa, SAVE THE CHILDREN, pp. 83-91.
Thompson, R. Bankole (1996) “Due Process and Legal Pluralism in Sierra Leone: The Challenge of Reconciling Contradictions in the Laws and Cultures of a Developing Nation”, in Comparative Criminal Justice: Traditional and Nontraditional Systems of Law and Control, C. B. Fields and R. H. Moore, Jr., eds., Prospect Hills, Illinois, USA: Waveland Press, pp. 344-361.
Thorne, K. (2005) Rule of Law through Imperfect Bodies? Informal Justice Systems of Burundi and Somalia, Geneva: Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue
Throup, D. (1992), 'Crime, Politics and the Police in Colonial Kenya, 1939-63', in D. Anderson and D. Killingray, eds., Policing and Decolonisation: Politics, Nationalism and the Police, 1917-1965, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 127-157.
Thulare, P. (1996), 'Policing and Security on the East Rand - Katorus area', African Security Review 5, 2, reproduced in, Double Take: A Collection of Material Written by CPS Researchers, Johannesburg: Centre for Policy Studies.
Tieku, TK 2004, ‘Explaining the Clash and Accommodation of Interests of the Major Actors in the Creation of the African Union’. African Affairs, vol. 103, :pages249-267.
Tignor, R. (1971), 'Colonial Chiefs in Chiefless Societies', Journal of Modern African Studies, 9, 3, 339-359.
Titeca, K. (2009) 'The 'Masai' and Miraa: public authority, vigilance and criminality in a Ugandan border town' Journal of Modern African Studies 47(2): 219- 317
Titeca, K (2006) ‘Les OPEC boys en Ouganda, trafiquants de pétrole et acteurs politiques’ Politique Africaine 103:143-159.
Touré, A. (1998), 'Conflict Prevention and Management in Africa', in Grandvoinnet, H. and Schneider, H. eds., Conflict Management in Africa. A Permanent Challenge. OECD, Paris, 49-56.
Tsebo Mats, (1999), 'Lesotho Death Squads
In The Mountain Kingdom', New People African Feature Service, available
Tshehla, B. (2001), Non-state Ordering in the Post-Apartheid South Africa - A Study of Some Structures of Non-state Ordering in the Western Cape Province, Master's thesis, Law Faculty, University of Cape Town, available at http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/sjrp/publicat/nonstate.htm
Tshehla, B. (2002).Non-State Justice in Post-Apartheid South Africa - A scan of Khayelitsha. African Sociological Review. 6(2): 47-70.
Tladi, K (1996) "Community Policing Forums in South Africa: Transformative Structures for Building Peace in Society". Unpublished Research Report. Letsema Conflict Transformation Resource, Roodepoort.
Turner, R. (1955), 'Law Enforcement by Communal Action in Sukumaland, Tanganyika Territory', Journal of African Administration, 7, 4 page.
Twinomugisha, Nathan & Kibuka, E.P. (1997) Good Governance and Easing Social Tensions in Uganda: Studies of Operations and Justice of local Councils.
UNDP Sudan, 2006, ‘Traditional Tribal Systems and Customary Law in Eastern Sudan’, A Report for the Rule of Law Unit, January 2006.United Nations Development Programme – Oslo Governance Centre
US Department of State (annually), Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labour, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.
Uwazie, Ernest E. (1994) "Models of Indigenous Disputing and Legal Interactions among the lbos of Eastern Nigeria", in Journal of Legal Pluralism, No. 34, pp. 87-103.
van Binsbergen, W. (1997),
Virtuality as a Key Concept in the Study of African Globalisation: Aspects
of the Symbolic Transformation of Contemporary Africa available at
Van der Spuy, E., 2007. Setting the scene: Police reform in post-conflict Africa. IDASA, Police reform in post-conflict African countries conference. Pretoria, South Africa 12-15 March 2007. Cape Town: Institute of Criminology.
Van der Spuy, E. (2000) "Foreign Donor Assistance and Policing Reform in South Africa", Policing and Society, Vol. 10 No. 4.
Van Der Spuy, E. (2001) The Emergence and Transformation of Civil Monitoring of Police Power: Some Trends from the Western Cape. In Schärf, W. and D. Nina (eds) The Other Law: Non-State Ordering in South Africa. Lansdowne: Juta.
Van Der Westhuizen, J. (2001) 'Ethics in Police Management and Administration: A South African Perspective' Acta Criminologica, Vol. 14(1): 31-39.
Van Dijk, J. (1996), 'Responses to Crime Across the World, Results of the International Ccrime Victim Survey', University of Leyden, Netherlands Ministry of Justice.
Van Niekerk, GJ (1995) "The Interaction of Indigenous Law and Western Law in South Africa: a Historical and Comparative Perspective". LLD Thesis. UNISA.
Van Onselen, C. (1973), 'Collaborators in the Rhodesian Mining Industry', African Affairs, 72, 289, 401-18.
Van Onselen, C. (1976), Chibaro, African Mine Labour in Southern Rhodesia, 1900-30, London: Pluto Press.
Van Velson, J.(1969) "Procedural Informality, Reconciliation, and False Comparisons", in Gluckman Ideas and Procedures in African Customary Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 135-150.
Vaux, T. (2003), European Aid Agencies and their Use of Private Security Companies, available at www.international-alert.org
Vincent, J. (1993) Recognising and Recreating Legal Pluralism in Colonial Uganda. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, No 33-34, pp 147-159.
Von Benda-Beckmann, F. (1981) "Some Comments On The Problems Of Comparing The Relationship Between Traditional And State Systems Of Administration Of Justice In Africa And Indonesia". Journal of Pluralism and Unofficial Law. No. 19 pp. 165-175.
von Schnitzler, A., Ditlhage, G., Kgalema,
L., Maepa, T., Mofokeng, T. and Pigou, P. (2001), Guardian or Gangster?
Mapogo a Mathamaga: A Case Study. Violence and Transition Series, 3, available
Wanitzek, U. (1990) 'Legally Unrepresented Women Petitioners in The Lower Courts Of Tanzania: A Case Of Justice Denied?', Journal Of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. 30-32, 1990-92: 255-268.
Westermark, G.D. (1996) When The Alternative Fails. Journal Of Legal Pluralism And African Law and Legal Theory.
Wilson, M. and Mafeje, A. (1963) Langa: A Study Of Social Groups In An African Township. Oxford University Press: Cape Town.
Wood, B. (2000), Malawi Security Sector
Reform Pilot Project Report:
Woodman & A.C. Obilade (eds) (1995) African Law and Legal Theory. Dartmouth pp. 5-18.
Woodman, G.R (1969) "Some Realism about Customary Law - The West African Experience", in Wisconsin Law Review, 1969 reproduced in Woodman, Obilade, eds. African Law and Legal Theory, Dartmouth. (1995)pp. 145-170.
Woodman, G.R. (1996 ) 'Legal pluralism and the search for Justice', Journal of African Law. 40(2):152-167.
Woods, J. date 'Mozambique: The CIVPOL Operation',
available at www.ndu.edu/inss.
Young, C. (1988), 'The African Colonial State and its Political Legacy', in D. Rothchild and N. Chazan, N. eds., The Precarious Balance: State and Society in Africa, Boulder: Westview Press.
Zolberg, A. (1992), 'The Specter of Anarchy: African States Verging on Dissolution', Dissent 39, Summer.
Last updated March 2013